By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with basic learn and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got consistently chanced on the eu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary creation, in the course of a survey direction on global prehis tory, verified that (for me, no less than) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named instrument forms than any undergraduate should need to take note. i didn't comprehend a lot, yet I knew there have been higher issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any suggestion of pur suing learn on Stone Age Europe-that direction used to be adequate for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the past due Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of progressive human adaptive swap. Iron ically, it all was once amenable to research utilizing exactly the similar types and analytical instruments i stopped up spending the higher a part of 20 years making use of within the nice Basin of western North the US. again then, after all, few have been wondering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, type, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled lower than I on the activity of getting to know those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages should be hooked up as a part of higher local subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Extra resources for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
Included are the nonfood constituents of food resources: hides, sinew, teeth, antler, and shells. The presence of such materials may add to the attractiveness of certain resources and have been included in models of food choices Oochim, 1976; Keene, 1981; Mithen, 1990). In each case the results have been rather unsatisfactory because the nonfood value cannot be measured in the same currency as the food value. Each model has sidestepped this problem by multiplying the food value by some arbitrary number meant to reflect the additional utility.
E u. ~60 e! ~ Karlsruhe. 50 • Freiburg 40 30 o 2 VariancelMean 3 4 Figure 6. Correlation of average number of frost days and variance/mean ratio of the number of frost days. THE NATIJRAL LANDSCAPE 41 general the warmest regions tend to have the highest variability, and contrasts between regions with similar means tend to increase as the average decreases.
Hawkes, 1990). Other research has examined more proximate ecological factors that facilitate or constrain social differentiation. The importance of resource abundance and reliability in permitting individual striving for prestige has been emphasized by Gould (1976) , Hayden (1990) and Mithen (1990) . Prestige is normally obtained through gifts and feasting, which create obligations. Habitats that are too poor and variable encourage more egalitarian sharing, higher mobility and residential flexibility, and less accumulation of food and material goods to give away.
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim