By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Additional info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
1976; Peng, 1977; Simonnet and Oria, 1977; and BIPM, 1980). Liquid scintillators are normally composed of one or more fluorescent solutes in an organic solvent. In the preparation of the sample for liquid-scintillation counting, the radioactive material is introduced into, and thoroughly mixed with, the liquid scintillator. It is generally accepted that radiation energy is expended in the ionization and excitation of the solvent. This energy is subsequently transferred to the solute (or fluor) and is re-emitted as photons in the violet and ultraviolet.
1968). Counting in a lr geometry, or less, normal to the surface of the thick source support, eliminates errors due to multiple alpha-particle scattering, because such scattered alpha particles are emitted at angles of less than 5" to the plane of the surface of the source support (Walker, 1965). ) The fourth direct method is applicable to radionuclides that decay with the emission of a t least two photons in coincidence with no transitions of the parent nucleus to the ground state of the daughter.
1953). shape measured on the wire of a proportional counter is essentially determined by the movement of the positive ions. Since, in a proportional counter, most of the ionization develops very close to the wire, the electrons travel only short distances and their effect on the pulse rise is rather small. Figure 8 shows a typical pulse shape. A delay, of time t,, elapses before the primary electrons reach the multiplication region. 2 PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS / 27 Fig. 8. Voltage pulse from proportional counter.
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements